1.     a) What is microprocessor? Explain the generations of microprocessors.
b) List out the features of 8086 microprocessors.
2.     Draw and explain the architecture of 8086 microprocessor.
3.     a) General bus operation of 8086.
b) Explain memory segmentation of 8085
4.     What is addressing mode. And list out addressing modes of 8086 microprocessor.

1.     a) What is an interrupt? What happened when interrupt occurred?
b) Draw interrupt vector table and explain any five interrupts.
2.     Classifications of interrupts
3.     a) Draw the stack structure of 8086and explain it .
b) Write ALP program for addition of two 16-bit numbers
4.     a) Explain the instruction format of 8086.
b) Write ALP program for multiplication of two 16-bit numbers
1.     Draw and explain the architecture of 8255 PPI
2.     Draw pin diagram of 8279 keyboard& display controller explain each pin
3.     Draw block diagram of 8251 (USART) and explain each block function
4.     Draw and explain the stepper motor with excitation table


1)a)explain the color image fundamentals? 
    b)explain the RGB,HIS and CMY color model ?
2)Draw the image compression model and Explain?
3)a)Explain Erosion and dilation techniques with an example?
b) explain global thresholding ?
4)a)explain how the RGB color model converted in to HSI color space ?
    b)explain the terms Flat ,light and Dark terms in tonal correction ?
5)Define image compression and explain various redundancy techniques?
6)explain various types of edge detection discontinuity techniques(point,Line,Edge)? 
7)a)with neat diagram explain intensity slicing in pseudo color image processing ?
    b)draw the color complement circle ?
8)classify the various watermarking Techniques used in image watermarking, draw the block diagram?
9)a)Explain Hit or miss transform with an example?
b) explain region splitting and merging in image segmentation?
10)a)how gray level converted to color in gray level transformation in pseudo color image processing ?
    b) Give the basic formulation for color image smoothing and sharpening
11) Explain about error free compression?
12) a)explain opening and closing operations?

b) explain region growing segmentation?

Digital Image Processing
Important Questions (R13 Regulation)

1) what is Digital Image Processing? Explain the origins of the Digital Image Processing
2) Explain the Fields that use Digital image Processing ?
3) Explain in brief the steps in Digital image processing ?
4) What are the Components of Digital Image Processing ,Explain ?
5) what is photopic  and scotopic vision ,how effects the vision of the human eye
6) explain image sampling and quantization ,explain with an example ?
7) what is resolution ? explain gray level and spatial resolutions ?
8) Explain the aliasing and Moiré Patterns ?
9) explain the basic relationship between the Pixels ?
10)explain the process of image acquisition?
11)explain different logical operations performed on the images?
12)Discuss all types of transform?
1) represent the transform function for gray level contrast enhancement ?
2)explain the gray level transformations - 1.image negatives 2.log transform ?
3) explain piecewise-Linear transformation functions  ?1.contrast stretching   2.gray level slicing   3.bit-plane slicing
4)what is histogram ?
5)explain histogram Equalization ?
6)explain histogram matching (specification) ?
7)how the image get enhanced using the gradient operator(first derivative operator) ?
8) explain the use of second derivative operator for enhancing the image (laplacian operator) ?
9)explain briefly about smoothing by linear filters and order static filters?
UNIT-2 (Part-2)***********************************************************
1)explain the basic  properties of discrete Fourier transform ?
2)give the stepwise basics of filtering in frequency domain?
3)explain smoothing filters in frequency domain ideal low pass ,Butterworth low pass ,Gaussian low pass filters?
4)explain sharpening filters in frequency domain? ideal  high pass filters, Butterworth high pass, Gaussian high pass filters ?
5)give the basic formulation for high boost filtering ?
6)explain about homomorphic filtering  approach for image enhancement?
1)draw and explain degradation model /restoration process?
2)give basic formulation for noise models?
3)spatial filtering: (mean filters): arithmetic mean filter, geometric mean filter, harmonic mean filter , contra harmonic mean filter,?
4)explain briefly about notch and optimum notch filters?
5)explain about mean square error(Wiener) filtering?
6)explain about inverse filtering?
7)explain the image reconstructions using back projection using one example?
8)explain briefly about computed tomography?
9)explain radon transform with equations?
10)explain Fourier slice theorem ?
11)what is sinogram ,explain with an example ?
UNIT-6 (Part-1)************************************************************
1)what is Dilation ? explain with an example?
2)what is erosion ? explain with an example ?
3)give the basic formulation for opening and closing operations ? explain with an example ?
4)what are the properties of Opening and closing operations satisfies ?
5)explain Hit-or-Miss transform with an example ? give the basic formulation .
6)explain with an examples of basic morphological Algorithms
 i)boundary extraction   ii)region filling    iii)extraction of connected components   iv)convex hull                 v)thinning                 vi)thickening      vii)skeletons  viii)pruning
7)explain how the dilation and erosion operations can extended to gray scale images ? explain with an example
8) extend the opening and closing operations to gray scale images ? what are the properties that opening and closing operations will satisfies ?
9)explain the briefly applications of gray scale morphology like image smoothing, morphological gradient, top-hat transform ? 
1)explain the color image fundamentals? 
2)explain the RGB color model ?
3)explain the HSI color model ?
4)explain the CMY and CMYK color model ?
5)explain how the RGB color model converted in to HSI color space ?
6) explain how the HSI color model converted in to RGB  color space ?
7)with neat diagram explain intensity slicing in pseudo color image processing ?
8)how gray level converted to color in gray level transformation in pseudo color image processing ?
9)give an example for gray level transformation and explain ?
10)what are the basic formulation required for RGB,HSI and CMYK color models in full color processing ?
11)draw the color complement circle ?
12)what is color slicing and give the basic formulation ?
12)explain the terms Flat ,light and Dark terms in tonal correction ?
13)give the basic formulation for color image smoothing ,sharpening and segmentation ?
14)explain in brief Noise in color images ?
UNIT-6 (Part-2)************************************************************
1) explain various types of edge detection discontinuity techniques? (line, point, edge)
2)explain global thresholding ?
3)explain adaptive thresholding?
4)explain local thresholding?
5)explain region growing segmentation?
6)explain region splitting and merging in image segmentation?
7)explain the basic concepts in morphological watersheds?
8)the use of motion in segmentation using spatial techniques - basic approach and accumulative difference ?
9)the use of motion in segmentation using frequency  techniques -basic equations?

1. Explain CMOC Circuit Behavior With Resistive Loads And Discuss The Dynamic Electrical Behavior?

2. Design 2-Input And Gate And Or Gate Using CMOS With Truth Table And Operational Diagrams?
3.a)Design Transistor Circuit Of 2-I/P ECL nor gate and explain the operation with functional table?
   b). Draw The Circuit Diagram Of Basic TTL NAND Gate With Functional Table?
4. Design 4-I/P CMOS OR-AND-INVERTER And Explain The Circuit With The Help Of Logic Diagrams And Function Table.
5. Design Full adder Using Two Half Adders Write VHDL Code For Above Implementation In Structural Model?
6. Design 2-Bit Comparator And Write VHDL Program For It?
7.a).Write VHDL Code For 1*4 De Multiplexer
    b).Write VHDL Code For 3*8 Decoder Using 74*138
8.a).Design The Logic Circuit AND WRITE A DATAFLOW STYLE VHDL Program For The Fallowing F(A,B,C,D)=∑M(0,1,3,5,14)+∑D(8,15)
b).Write Data Flow VHDL Program For 4*1 Multiplexer
9. Design 4-Bit Synchronous Counter And Write Behavioral Model Program And Explain With Wave Form?
10. a). Discuss About Working Of Johnson Counter Using 74*Ls 194 .
    b).Write VHDL Program For To Simulate Behavior Of Positive Edge Triggered D-Flip Flop?
11.a).Convert The SR Flip Flop Into D Flip Flop
   b).What Are The Difference Between Latch And Flip Flop?
12.a).Explain How A JK Flip Flop Can Be Constructed Using A T Flip flop
   b).Design Mod-5 Counter?

DSD DICA I-MID Important Questions R-13 Regulation


1) Explain about the Objects and Classes.
2) Write shot note on Functional Gate-Level verification    sureshQ
3) Write short note on package declaration.
4) Write VHDL code for D- Flip -Flop using behavioral modeling
5)Write VHDL code for half subtractor using data flow modeling.
6) Comparison of VHDL and Verilog HDL.
 7) Write in brief about the history of VHDL
8) What are the steps involved in Design Flow using VHDL.

1)what is logic synthesis with block diagram?
2) Explain about place and route with block diagram
3)What is  simulation  with block diagram
 4)Explain about features of VHDL
5) Explain about following terms
(i) Technology library
(ii) Programming structure of VHDL
6) write VHDL code for  half adder using structural modeling     sureshQ
7)Explain about inside logicsythsizer with block diagram

1)Explain about following teams     sureshQ
  a). AND- Matrix
  b). OR- Matrix
2)Implement the following  function by using PLA
              F1= ∑m(1,2,3) ,F2=∑m(0,1).
3) Write VHDL code for below functions using behavioral modeling
                   F1= ∑m(1,2,3) ,F2=∑m(0,1).

4)Explain different Commercial ROM types.  sureshQ
 5) Explain the DRAM read and write cycle timings with help of waveforms.
7)Explain the operation of  SRAM with the help of its internal architecture
8) Draw and explain the 1-bit memory cell of a Dynamic RAM

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